Software utility that can be used in conjunction with a device or service;
A piece of software that enhances another software application and usually cannot be run independently.
Advanced Persistent Threat
Also known as: APT
Malicious cyber attacks directed at a specific target, usually over a long period of time. APTs are often run by professional organizations, looking to steal information rather than just money.
Also known as: Amazon Machine Image
AWS template that contains configuration, application server, and applications required to launch an EC2 AWS Instance.
Mobile device operating system. Compare to Apple iOS.
Antivirus software, abbreviated: AV. Used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software.
Also known as: Application Programming Interface
A set of tools and procedures provided by the programmer of an application so that other programmers can control, exchange data with, or extend the functionality of an application.
Also known as: Access Point Name
Access Point Name provided by an ISP for wireless WAN connections.
Apple mobile operating system for devices such as iPhone and iPad. Compare to Android.
Device or piece of equipment.
Application Load Balancer
AWS feature that makes routing decisions at the application layer (HTTP/S), supports path-based routing, and can route requests to one or more ports on each EC2 instance or container instance in a VPC.
Also known as: Address Resolution Protocol
Protocol for mapping IP addresses to physical addresses such as Ethernet or Token Ring.
Referring to a standard 7-bit character system that includes the alphanumeric characters and printer control codes.
Name server that gives answers in response to queries about names in a DNS zone.
Associated with DNS. A section of the domain-name tree for which one name server is the authority.
Auto Scaling Group
A representation of multiple EC2 instances that share similar characteristics, and that are treated as a logical grouping for the purposes of instance scaling and management.
Also known as: AS
Collection of networks under a common administration sharing a common routing strategy. Autonomous systems are subdivided by areas. An autonomous system must be assigned a unique 16-bit number by the IANA.
AWS Direct Connect
Also known as: Amazon Web Services
Enables you to use the Internet privately through AWS cloud services by linking your internal network to an AWS Direct Connect location. You can create virtual interfaces directly to the AWS cloud and to Amazon VPC, bypassing Internet service providers in your network path.
Also known as: Amazon Web Services Internet of Things
A managed cloud platform that lets connected devices easily and securely interact with cloud applications and other devices.
A named set of AWS resources in the same geographical area. A region comprises at least two Availability Zones.
AWS Management Console
A simple and intuitive web-based user interface to access and manage AWS.
Part of the back-end process, that usually consists of server, application, and database. The back end is where the technical processes happen, as opposed to the front end, which is usually where the user's interaction occurs.
Referring to the Internet, a central network that provides a pathway for other networks to communicate.
Operating mode for Ethernet bundles where the link is chosen by calculating the hash out of the source/destination MAC (Layer 2) combined with the IP addresses (Level 3).
Rate of data transfer, usually expressed in multiples of bits per second (bps).
Also known as: Berkeley Internet Name Domain
The standard TCP/IP naming service that links network names with IP addresses.
Storage device that moves data in sequences of bytes or bits (blocks). Example: hard disk, CD-ROM drive, flash drive.
block device mapping
Defines the block devices (instance store volumes and EBS volumes) to attach to an AWS instance.
A document or seal certifying the authenticity of something. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key. This allows relying parties to rely upon signatures or on assertions made about the private key that corresponds to the certified public key.
Log of configuration changes on the appliance. Can be found in the release notes of the product.
The result of a mathematical operation that uses the binary representation of a group of data as its basis, usually to check the integrity of the data.
Class A|B|C|D network
Classes of IP addresses as defined in the Internet Protocol hierarchy.
classic load balancer
In AWS, a Classic Load Balancer makes routing decisions at either the transport layer (TCP/SSL) or the application layer (HTTP/HTTPS), and supports either EC2-Classic or a VPC (virtual private cloud).
AWS cloud integration allows the firewall to connect directly to the AWS service fabric to rewrite routes in AWS route tables and to retrieve information for the cloud element on the dashboard. Cloud integration also works with Azure.
cloud operating system
A computer operating system that is specially designed to run in a provider's datacenter and be delivered to the user over the Internet or another network. Windows Azure is an example of a cloud operating system or 'cloud layer' that runs on Windows Server 2008.
The ability to move applications and data from one cloud provider to another. This is the opposite of "vendor lock-in".
A service offered by cloud storage providers whereby data is transformed using encryption algorithms and is then placed on a storage cloud.
AWS management tool that lets you create, manage, and update a collection of AWS resources using templates and allowing Json code for template deployment.
An AWS content delivery service that helps you improve the performance, reliability, and availability of your websites and applications.
Replacing traditional IT operations with lower-cost, outsourced cloud services.
AWS management tool to monitor resources and applications. Aggregates data and metrics (cpu load, network throughput, disk io, etc), filters it, and provides alarm actions.
Global settings that apply to a cluster on a Appliance Web service.
In Ethernet, the network area within which frames that have collided are propagated. Repeaters and hubs propagate collisions. LAN switches, bridges and routers do not.
Traffic in excess of network capacity.
Also known as: Amazon Web Services
AWS feature, lets you scale down EC2 instances to reduce sessions.
Masks the virtualization environment, so payload can be detonated more effectively.
cross region replication
Feature of S3 storage class in AWS. Once enabled, every object uploaded to a particular S3 bucket is automatically replicated to a designated destination bucket located in a different AWS region.
A facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.
Also known as: truncate
Occurs when data or a data stream is stored in a location too short to hold its entire length. May occur automatically, such as when a long string is written to a smaller buffer, or deliberately, when only a portion of the data is wanted.
Document that summarizes the performance and other technical characteristics of a product, machine, component (e.g., an electronic component), material, a subsystem (e.g., a power supply) or software in sufficient detail to be used by a design engineer to integrate the component into a system.
An Internet hosting option where an organization leases an entire server, fully dedicated to their use. This is also an option in the public cloud. The price for a Dedicated Host varies by instance family, region, and payment option.
Amazon EC2 instance that runs on single-tenant hardware dedicated to a single customer.
dedicated reserved instance
An option you can purchase from a cloud vendor to guarantee that sufficient capacity will be available to launch Dedicated Instances into a virtual private cloud (VPC).
Database record used to map a URL to an IP address.
Open-source software that automates the deployment of applications inside virtualized software containers.
A layered file system template that is the basis of a Docker container. Docker images can comprise specific operating systems or applications.
dynamic path selection
Term used in context with Traffic Intelligence (TI). Using dynamic path selection, the session is balanced depending on the amount of traffic.
Routing that adjusts automatically to network topology or traffic changes. Also called adaptive routing.
A fully managed Amazon NoSQL database service that provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability.
Used by the AWS service CloudFront. Feature that offers content to end users via geographically closer locations to improve their experience.
Also known as: Exterior Gateway Protocol
Internet protocol for exchanging routing information between autonomous systems.
A web service for deploying and managing applications in the AWS cloud without worrying about the infrastructure that runs those applications.
The use of a master key and a data key to algorithmically protect data. The master key is used to encrypt and decrypt the data key and the data key is used to encrypt and decrypt the data itself.
Local area network technology that uses special twisted pair or fiber optical cables. As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer.
AWS service that enables you to capture information about the IP traffic going to and from network interfaces in a VPC.
A gigabit, or 10^9 bits.
A gigabyte, or 10^9 bytes, or 8000 million bits.
Also known as: gigahertz
A unit of frequency equal to 10^9 hertz, which is defined as one cycle per second.
Google App Engine
A service that enables developers to create and run web applications on Google's infrastructure and share their applications via a pay-as-you-go, consumption-based plan with no setup costs or recurring fees.
Also known as: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Protocol for submitting data over a network, commonly used to load website content in a web browser.
Also known as: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
Consists of communication over HTTP within a connection encrypted by TLS or SSL. The main motivation is authentication of the visited website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data.
Native Hypervisor on Windows, created by Microsoft.
Also known as: intermediate system
Routing node in an OSI network.
Also known as: Integrated Services Digital Network
Communication protocol offered by telephone companies that permits telephone networks to carry data, voice, and other source traffic.
Measure of the difference in packet delay, that is, the difference in the space between packet arrival times. Jitter can be remedied somewhat with a jitter buffer.
AWS template that an Auto Scaling group uses to launch EC2 instances. Contains AMI, instance type, key pair, security groups, and block device mapping.
Latest maintenance release for the previous major firmware version.
Macintosh Operating System. Formerly known as Mac OS X.
A unit of measure used to describe the rate of data transmission equal to one millions bits per second.
Also known as: megahertz
A unit of frequency equal to 10^6 hertz, which is defined as one cycle per second.
Two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted over the Internet.
Also known as: Mean Opinion Score
Measure representing the overall quality of a system or stimulus, calculated by taking the arithmetic mean of individual values of quality. Often used for, but not limited to, video, audio and audiovisual quality.
Switch that filters and forwards packets based on MAC addresses and network addresses. A subset of LAN switch.
Scheme that allows multiple logical signals to be transmitted simultaneously across a single physical channel.
Also known as: multitenant
The existence of multiple clients sharing resources (services or applications) on distinct physical hardware. Due to the on-demand nature of cloud, most services are multitenant.
A NAT device, configured by a user, that performs network address translation in a VPC public subnet to secure inbound Internet traffic.
Also known as: Network Basic Input/Output System
API used by applications on an IBM LAN to request services from lower-level network processes. These services might include session establishment and termination, and information transfer.
Resource-intensive OSPF area that carries a default route, static routes, intra-area routes, interarea routes, and external routes. The only OSPF areas that can have virtual links configured across them and that can contain an ASBR.
Nonrelational database systems that are highly available, scalable, and optimized for high performance. Instead of the relational model, NoSQL databases (like Amazon DynamoDB) use alternate models for data management, such as keyvalue pairs or document storage.
Authentication method with an internal IP address as destination. Offline Authentication Works with all protocols (for example, POP3).
Refers to a location other than the subject site.
An Amazon EC2 pricing option that charges you for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitment.
At the place where a business or activity happens. Compare to offsite.
A free and open-source cloud computing software platform used to control pools of processing, storage, and networking resources in a datacenter.
Orthogonal sparse bigram transformation. In machine learning, a transformation that aids in text string analysis and that is an alternative to the n-gram transformation. OSB transformations are generated by sliding the window of size n words over the text, and outputting every pair of words that includes the first word in the window.
Also known as: platform as a service
Cloud platform services, where the computing platform (operating system and associated services) is delivered as a service over the Internet by the provider.
Additional, meaningless data adds to a packet to increase its size.
- The process of responding to an API request by returning a large list of records in small separate parts.
- Breaking a document into separate pages and assigning them numbers or letters.
A device to which a computer has a network connection that is relatively symmetrical and where both devices can initiate or respond to a similar set of requests.
A data storage solution where the data remains intact until it is deleted.
Also known as: Public Key Cryptography Standards
Refers to a group of standards, in the format PKCS #n, where n =1 to 15. For example: Certificates can be downloaded in PKCS #12 format, which includes the private key and certificate.
Logical grouping of AWS instances within a single Availability Zone.
Also called source-based routing, is used when the source IP address of the connection determines, in part or completely, which route is used.
A tool in the IAM AWS Management Console that helps you test and troubleshoot policies so you can see their effects in real-world scenarios.
A means of Media Access Control where a device may only transmit information when it is given permission to transmit by a controller device.
Also known as: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
A network protocol that is used to establish VPN tunnels.
24/7 support, offered by SignNow
A VPC subnet whose instances cannot be reached from the Internet.
A subnet whose instances can be reached from the Internet.
AWS term, managed Relational Database Service
Also known as: realtime, real-time
The time in which an action is performed.
A combination of characters or character classes and operators that describe text for matching purposes.
A pricing option for EC2 instances that discounts the on-demand usage charge for instances that meet the specified parameters. Customers pay for the entire term of the instance, regardless of how they use it.
Reserved IP addresses
Also known as: RIP
IP addresses reserved for special purposes. For example, IP addresses reserved and assigned to Azure cloud services.
Also known as: Representational State Transfer API
A software architecture style for building scalable web services. REST gives a coordinated set of constraints to the design of components in a distributed hypermedia system that can lead to a higher performing and more maintainable architecture.An API (Application Programming Interface) is the means by which third parties can write code that interfaces with other code.
reverse lookup zone
Support the secondary function of Domain Name System (DNS) - the resolution of IP addresses to host names.
Also known as: Routing Information Protocol
Numbered authorization provided by a merchant to permit the return of a product.
A return to a previous state after an installation or configuration failure.
A CA-signed or self-signed public key certificate that identifies the root certificate authority (CA).
AWS service for DNS-based load balancing that connects user requests to EC2 instances, ELBs, S3 buckets, and Internet applications and provides health checks for monitoring or to route traffic to healthy endpoints.
In AWS, a set of routing rules that controls the traffic leaving any subnet that is associated with the route table. You can associate multiple subnets with a single route table, but a subnet can be associated with only one route table at a time.
One of the four storage classes in AWS. 99.9& SLA reduced redundancy storage, lower fault tolerance, stored in 1 region.
A collection of one or more access or application rules.
An online SaaS company that is best known for delivering customer relationship management (CRM) software to companies over the Internet.
The suitability of a network system to operate properly and efficiently when configured on a large scale.
Also known as: software-defined networking in a wide area network, software-defined WAN
A wide area network controlled by software. Control and data are decoupled, simplifying both network hardware and management.
Also known as: software development kit
Set of software development tools that allows the creation of applications for a certain software package.
A port on a computing device that is capable of either transmitting or receiving one bit at a time.
Certificate for a service, signed by a valid, trusted entity, that allows access without further validation.
The layer in the OSI 7-Layer Model that is concerned with managing the resources required for the session between two computers.
Securely connects entire networks to each other, for example, connecting a branch office network to a company headquarters network.
Also known as: service level agreement, service-level agreement
A contractual agreement by which a service provider defines the level of service, responsibilities, priorities, and guarantees regarding availability, performance, and other aspects of the service.
Also known as: Systems Network Architecture
IBM's communications architecture and strategy.
Capture of the state of a system at a particular point in time.
Also known as: simple notification service
Feature to push notifications to mobile services and trigger actions, in Amazon Web Services (AWS).
Also known as: Simple Network Time Protocol
Network package format for time synchronization, similar to NTP, only recommended for simple applications.
Also known as: Simple Object Access Protocol
Protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.
Changing the source address/port in the IP header of a packet. Example: changing a private IP address/port into a public address/port in the IP header of a packet leaving the network.
Purchasing option that allows a customer to purchase unused Amazon EC2 computer capacity at a highly-reduced rate.
Also known as: Amazon Simple Queue Service, Amazon SQS
Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) is a fast, reliable, scalable, fully managed message queuing service.
static website hosting
Hosting of a static website in Amazon S3. When a bucket is enabled for Static website hosting, all content is accessible to web browsers via the Amazon S3 website endpoint of the bucket.
Partitioning of an IP address space into several smaller address spaces.
Method for handling of log file messages that are to be transferred to another system for analyzing purposes.
An intrusion into a network cable by a connector.
The TCP Proxy is placed between browser and web server and filters requests and responses in TCP streams.
Also known as: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
A Transport and Network Layer Protocol, respectively, used for communication in the Internet and often in private networks.
A protocol to access a remote computer system, often a Unix system, over the network. Origin: Teletype Network.
Communications processor that connects asynchronous devices such as terminals, printers, hosts, and modems to any LAN or WAN that uses TCP/IP, X.25, or LAT protocols.
Also known as: Trivial File Transfer Protocol
A simplified version of FTP (file tranfer protocol).
Also known as: time stamp
A date/time string to mark an occurrence of an event.
Transport Layer Security
Also known as: TLS
Cryptographic protocol that provides communications security over a computer network.
To decrypt encrypted data. The antonym of encrypt.
Product or system.
A cloud computing environment optimized for use and built around the compliance needs of specialized industries such as healthcare, financial services, and government operations.
Allows multiple guest virtual machines (VM) to run on a host operating system. Guest VMs can run on one or more levels above the host hardware, depending on the type of virtualization.
Also known as: Web UI
Web-based user interface.
A computer system that processes requests via HTTP, the basic network protocol used to distribute information on the web.
A technology for wireless local area networking with devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
A human-readable data serialization language, commonly used for configuration files.